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Basics of Occupant Protection in Frontal Crashes: Mechanics, Energy Considerations, Occupant Protection Criteria and Application Examples


Constant changes of requirements - in particular in the consumer protection tests - let the design of restraint systems continuously seem more and more complex. The safety of rear seat occupants, for example, is playing an important role in the restraint system development today. In addition, new seating positions and interior concepts related to automated driving are discussed. Therefore, in addition to knowledge of legal requirements and rating protocols, a deep understanding of the complete system vehicle - restraint system - dummy occupant is necessary to successfully adjust the system. Starting with the knowledge of typical injury patterns in real accident events, a profound knowledge of the mechanisms causing dummy loading and the parameters influencing and enabling their optimization is essential. In this 2-day seminar, the mechanics of occupant restraining and the idea of energy considerations, as well as the most important occupant protection criteria and strategies for their reduction, are discussed. This knowledge is then put in a context of legal requirements and ratings. The seminar focuses on the influence of the seat belt, whereas unbelted load cases and an in depth analysis of airbag concepts is not part of this seminar. The seminar approaches occupant safety both from a theoretical basis as well as from the interpretation of experimental data. Attendees will learn about typical injury patterns in a frontal crash, the phases of retention, the main parameters influencing occupant loading and approaches for computing the balances of the restraint forces acting on the occupant. Another topic of the seminar is the rear seat occupant protection. In addition, new seating positions in the context of automated driving will be discussed. The aim of the seminar is to gain an understanding about the forces involved in energy absorption and their effects on the occupants.

Who should attend?

The course is intended for simulation engineers, systems engineers, project engineers, project managers and the heads of teams or departments in the crash area, dealing with the development of restraint systems or the analysis of crash data.

Course Contents

  • Typical injury patterns in real accident events and injury risk curves
  • Mechanical basics of frontal impact
  • Dummies in frontal crash: THOR, HIII 50%, HIII 5%, Q6 and Q10
  • Short overview of new regulations and consumer tests
  • Energy considerations - force balances
  • Phases of retention: Coupling and controlled retention
  • Relevant criteria for occupant protection: Mechanisms and parameters for their reduction
  • Priorities in the design of restraint systems for front and rear seats
  • Application examples and tips
  • Safety of occupants in new seating positions (automated driving)

Dr.-Ing. Burkhard Eickhoff
Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG

Eickhoff Burkhard Eickhoff studied mechanical engineering in Hannover (Germany) focusing on vehicle engineering and applied mechanics. Starting from 1999 he worked with Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG as a test engineer for sled and crash tests. Since 2003 he has been project manager in systems development (safety belt) of the same company. He was involved in the definition and assessment of new restraint systems and he conducted feasibility studies using system simulation as well as dynamical tests. Moreover he had a consultant role regarding restraint system design. He finished his doctoral thesis at the Helmut Schmidt University Hamburg in 2012 on the reduction of belt induced thorax deflection in frontal crashes. Since 2016 he has been head of the department Virtual & System Engineering, Homologation at Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG.

no dates available

This course is available as an in-house seminar. The trainer comes to your site - you save travel expenses and travel time. Get an offer.

Your contact person

Dr. Dirk Ulrich
Phone.: 06023 - 96 40 - 66

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All prices are exclusive of VAT.